Fungi are organisms that settle and multiply on the skin, hair and hair bases, nails, but can be seen with a microscope. All fungal diseases are highly contagious since these organisms are found around us, in nature, on shoes and slippers used, towels, public showers, gyms and fitness rooms, swimming pools, hotel and mosque carpets. These fungi like warm and humid environments to reproduce and reproduce by leaving their spores in these areas. It is transmitted from the area where it comes into contact with the skin. In addition, it can be transmitted from domestic animals such as cats, dogs, farm animals, to humans through contact if infected with the disease.
Hair fungus is common in children with low socioeconomic status in the society. In these children, there is an appearance of white crust on the scalp, shedding the hair on it and opening. In deeper involvement, it starts as a small pimple and gradually enlarges, with large discharge and crusty lesions. If this deep form is not treated, it causes permanent baldness. The treatment takes an average of 6-8 weeks and everyone around should be questioned. In people living in rural areas and under poor hygiene conditions, a picture called favus occurs when lentil-sized, white yellow crusts stick to the hair. This causes permanent baldness in the hair.
The trunk, arms and legs are the most frequently affected areas in body fungi. They usually have round, more conspicuous red lesions with fine white dandruff. It may enlarge over time and take the form of an indented map in the body. The average treatment with topical smears is 4 weeks. In patients with widespread lesions, oral drug therapy should be administered for 4-6 weeks.
In addition, fungi can cause itchy lesions in the beard area, face, eyebrow eyelashes and eyelids, and in the groin. Facial and scalp fungi may occur in hairdressers using unsterilized equipment. Inguinal fungus is more common in people who exercise a lot, sweat frequently, stay out of the house for a long time and do not comply with hygiene rules.
Another form that we often see from fungal diseases is athlete’s foot. Sometimes it may appear as a white cottony wetness that we call maceration in the middle of the toes, and sometimes as dry white crusting and redness that also affects the fingers and soles of the feet. In some patients, there may be white yellow water vesicles, especially on the soles of the feet. Foot fungus is very itchy and contagious. It is common to be transmitted by the use of shared shoes and slippers. Its treatment is approximately 6 weeks, and it is treated with oral medications if necessary. The middle of the toes and our feet are the most valuable entrance gates of the body. Not only fungi but also microbes enter through the cracks and crevices formed here. As a result, red, swollen, occasionally discharged wounds and infection may occur on the entire foot and even on the leg. For this reason, foot care is very valuable for us dermatologists.
Hand fungus occurs in the form of white dandruff, reddened rashes on the hands. Often confused with eczema and sometimes psoriasis
The fungus can settle on the nail bed and plate through transmission from hand and foot fungi, sometimes in isolation. White or black thickening of the nail, shedding, deterioration in the shape of the nail can sometimes cause inflammation with discharge. Treatment of nail fungus is 3 months with oral medications and 6 months with lasting treatments.
Sometimes, with cortisone drugs that can not be diagnosed correctly or because patients unconsciously are enough for itching, the fungal disease shows an increase that spreads to large areas. For this reason, truth is a disease that requires diagnosis and truth treatment. Fungal diseases are more common in people with immune system disorders, diabetes patients, and infants (in the mouth). Therefore, these patients should be followed up more carefully.
In my opinion, the most valuable reason for the prevalence of this disease in our society is that it is not taken very seriously. People who have red rashes on the body or face definitely apply to the doctor. However, people with thickening of the soles of the feet, dandruff, thickening and color changes in the fingernails and toenails generally remain untreated. It can also cause significant infections with the transmission of many microorganisms from these places. Since patients who apply to the doctor do not complete their treatment period, the disease passes and recurs. Treatment time is very valuable, especially in hair fungus. Permanent baldness occurs when it is delayed, so early diagnosis and treatment should be done quickly.
We live in a city famous for its hot springs. In places with public use areas, including pools, bare feet should not be stepped on, and hygiene rules should be observed. Keeping the areas with frequent sweating dry and applying sweat treatments if necessary can prevent fungal diseases from occurring. It is extremely valuable to create and use works that are frequently used in places where applications related to hairdressing and personal hygiene are made. It is essential for patients with nail or foot fungal infections in the house to be treated so that they do not infect the other residents. Individuals with varicose veins and circulation disorders should pay particular attention to foot and nail care.
In this article, I have tried to give you information about the fungal diseases that we frequently encounter and to give information about their treatment and precautions. I wish all my readers a healthy life free from fungal diseases.