Fungal diseases are caused by parasites called fungi. Some of the fungi live on living things as saprophytes (useful microorganisms), but under certain conditions they become (pathogen = disease-causing). Some of them are always disease-causing.
Fungal disease agents are roughly divided into two groups as yeast fungi and mold fungi. The host’s immunity, predisposing factors (poor hygiene, wetness, long-term antibiotic use, diseases such as diabetes, immunosuppressive treatment) play a major role in the formation of fungal diseases. It can hold all skin areas and appendages up to the nail.
HAIR FUNGUS (Tinea capitis); They are formed by many mold fungi. Scalp fungi are mostly seen in childhood. Intra-familial infections are common. Some of them go away in adolescence.
They have superficial and deep types. They create different landscapes compared to settlements. In superficial types, dandruff, breakage and dulling are seen in a few large round areas of the hair. It is seen in childhood. This type of puberty can also pass ex officio.
In favus (dry bald), the fungi settle deeper. Hair has fallen in the sick area. The rest are thin, grayish-ash-colored. There is a strange, foul odor. There are yellowish, crusty structures at the base of the hairs. The hairs are easily withdrawn. It leaves traces. baldness occurs. If the fungus settles deeper (Kerion Selsi), a single or several nodules form on the scalp. The lesion is surgical and soft. The pus flows from them over time, the hair falls out, or it can be easily pulled out, as if pulling hair out of butter. The lymph nodes near the diseased area are swollen. It smoothes out by leaving a trace. These types are mostly seen in children.
Deep-seated fungi can hold the beard of adult males. (Sycosis parasiteria) creates a picture like the symptoms on the scalp.
BODY FUNGUS: (tinea corporis); It is formed by many mold fungi. Fungi can cause disease on the trunk, arms, legs and armpits.
The most common fungal infection in the young and middle-aged is “Pitriasis versicolor”. The disease has a typical appearance with brown or white spots on the neck, trunk, back, armpits and dandruff that develops on it. Small plaques sometimes coalesce to form a map-like shape on the skin. They create an appearance. The patient has no subjective complaints, but there is an appearance problem. The disease increases mostly in summer months due to heat and humidity.
It is the form called “herpes sirsine”, which is known as “herpes sirsine” in the middle of the body, in another forum. It can settle on the body, sometimes even on the face. It makes patches with reddening in the middle, dandruff, progressing in the form of real small protrusions. Itching, watering can be seen. This form is often confused with eczema. It is more common in those who are engaged in animal husbandry and those who keep cats and dogs at home.
HAND-FOOT FUNGUS (Tinea Pedis and manum); These fungal diseases are caused by fungi. These fungal diseases can create different images on the hands and feet. Sometimes they give the appearance of typical eczema, sometimes they form red dandruff patches. Sometimes they form an image in the form of dry crusts, crevices. The itching is absolute. They can often be confused with diseases. Detection of the fungal agent from the lesions (native preparation) is the most definitive diagnosis method.
MUSHROOM (Tinea inguinalis); It is formed by many molds.
It is one of the most common fungal diseases. Patients do not go to the doctor for a long time because they are ashamed of many inguinal region examinations. They try to manage it with drugs they buy from the pharmacy or neighbor. This aggravates the picture.
Inguinal fungus, mostly symmetrically, forms clear-finished, red-brown patches in both inguinal regions. There are obvious protruding rednesses on the edges of the lesions. The inner side is more pinkish and dandruff. There are traces of rubbing in places. Inguinal fungus lesions can sometimes spread to the breech area, buttocks. Inguinal fungus can cause severe itching, odor, watering and cracks in some patients, especially in overweight, diabetics.
NAIL FUNGUS (Onnichomycosis); It is formed by more than one mold fungus.
It can affect all nails. It is more common on the big toes than other nails. The nails affected by the disease have discoloration (yellow-black), thickening and coarsening. In the advanced steps, it is seen that the nails crumble and take a moth-eating image. The thickened, coarse nail sinks into the skin and causes pain and swelling. Sometimes the nails that cannot be cut become horny.
YEAST FUNGUS (Candidiasis):
Candida, which are generally found as saprophytes in the organism, become pathogenic due to disorders in the immune system and cause disease. Immunodeficiency diseases, diabetes, chemotherapy, high-dose antibiotic and cortisone treatment and the formation of cracks in the skin due to maceration prepare the basis for candida.
Yeast fungi create a very common picture called “thrush” in the mouth in small babies. Again, they cause “rash” as a result of lousy diapering and swaddling. (Swaddle Dermatitis)
Yeast fungi can cause whitish plaques such as thrush, redness and peeling in the mouth and tongue, on the lip edges, in adults and the elderly with low resistance. (Candidal glossitis, candidal perles)
Yeast fungi can cause fragrant, cheese cut-like vaginal discharge in diabetic, pregnant, overweight and long-term antibiotics. The table is very itchy and uncomfortable. (Candidal vulvo-vaginitis)
Yeast fungi can also cause fungal disease in the nails. (Candidal onnichomycosis) Yellow-black color formation and thickening and coarsening are seen, especially in the base parts of the nails.