1- Why do skin spots occur?
When the melanin pigment, which gives the skin its color, becomes heavy in one area, it causes skin spots. The heaviness of the melanin pigment in one area can be caused by excessive sun exposure, or it can also be caused by any underlying disease.
Sometimes stains may remain as a result of a dermatological skin condition, or the unsystematic functioning of hormones contributes to this. Sometimes, stains can be observed after cosmetic processes applied by individuals who are not dermatologists.
Apart from this, unconsciously using chemical-containing works on the skin and excessive use of solarium may be the reason for this. Skin blemishes can also occur over time in the presence of genetics, that is, in the presence of a familial history.
2- Which procedures can be applied in the treatment of stains?
Skin spot treatment may vary depending on many reasons. If a person has a health condition underlying the skin blemish, the dermatologist will recommend the best treatment for this condition. Treating the underlying condition often resolves the associated skin problems. Treatment options include laser/light therapy, chemical peels, and topical creams. Alternatively, camouflaging makeup can be applied to cover the stain.
Chemical peeling procedure: Specially developed chemical solutions are used in the chemical peeling technique. The most commonly used chemical solution in the treatment of stains is fruit acids called glycolic acid and salicylic acid. This treatment can be applied with faith even in individuals with dark skin type with mild blemishes. Sessions can be done as 4-6 applications with an average of 2-4 weeks.
Enzyme peeling (spot mask): Enzyme peeling is a special peeling procedure that has been used in spot treatment in recent years. The mask, which is a special mixture, is applied to the skin and left for 8-10 hours. At the end of this period, the mask is removed with warm water and then a special follow-up cream is applied for 4-6 months.
Mesotherapy: Spots can be treated by injecting solutions consisting of special spot-removing drugs under the skin. This treatment method can be combined with chemical or enzyme peeling treatments or laser treatments.
Laser/light treatments: Different lasers can be used in spot treatment. Fractional lasers that peel the top layer of the skin, Q-switched NdYag lasers that target melanin, which we call color cells, and IPL or blue light photodynamic devices, which are weighted light sources, are the most commonly used light systems. In recent years, with the microneedle fractional radiofrequency system, an effective treatment is performed on both acne and blemishes without peeling the skin.
Color lightening creams: Creams can be used alone or in combination with the processes listed above in the treatment of stains. Creams containing hydroquinone, vitamin C, vitamin E, arbutin, kojic acid, glycolic acid are used most often in the treatment of stains. In addition, creams containing retinol have a peeling effect on the skin and can be used as an aid in spot treatment.
Sunscreen creams: Sunscreen creams should definitely be used during spot treatment. These creams protect the skin from the effects of the sun in the summer and winter months and roughen the spots to intensify.
3- How to treat acne spot?
Acne is a chronic disease of the skin. It often begins in adolescence. It continues for many years with exacerbations and remissions and then naturally regresses. In the treatment of acne, it is aimed to adapt the acne and prevent the scars that may occur afterwards. Accompanying blemishes in acne vulgaris is a very common condition. Therefore, both acne and spot treatment should be given together. This treatment varies according to the severity of the disease, the area of involvement of the disease, the age of the patient and the treatment preference of the patient. It is preferred in topical treatments, systemic treatments, peelings and laser/light therapy.
Topical treatments applied in acne treatment; It can be in the form of cream, gel, pomade or lotion. The drugs applied in this topical treatment only affect the area they are applied to. Topical treatments alone are preferred in mild acne patients. In moderate and severe acne patients, systemic treatments should be given. As systemic treatment, antibiotics, drugs such as isotretinoin or hormones are mostly preferred. Antibiotic treatments usually last 3 months.
Many treatment options are used together, sometimes in combination, to increase the effectiveness of treatment. Thanks to these prescribed drugs, both acne and blemishes are treated. Apart from these treatments, chemical peeling, skin care, laser/light treatments are also available.
4- Which areas are treated for spot treatment?
It gives very suitable results in laser/light spot treatment in all body parts. Sun and age spots that cause aesthetic problems, especially on the hands and face, are treated very successfully. In addition, chemical peeling can be applied both on the face and on the spots on other parts of the body.
5- Is there an age limit for spot treatment?
Creams given for spot treatment can be recommended for everyone except the children’s age group. However, it should be noted that the other cosmetic processes to be performed are above the age of 18 for chemical peeling and laser/light therapy.
6- Is spot treatment done only in winter?
When it comes to skin spots, the first thing that comes to mind is sun spots, but spots; Exposure to solarium light with the aim of tanning, pregnancy, taking birth control pills, wounds or burns after the newly adapted skin occurs again due to the effect of the sun and some skin diseases. The winter season is seen as the most suitable period for the treatment of these spots.
It is absolutely necessary to consult a dermatologist in the treatment of formed spots. It is valuable to create a treatment plan according to the structure of the stain, skin color and season. The first step in the treatment of blemishes is the continuation of sun protection throughout the treatment.
While some spot lightening creams are sufficient for some of the patients, some patients need processes such as peeling or laser. The most frequently applied process with this goal is glycolic acid salicylic acid chemical peels made with fruit acids.
Peeling with mediums for 2-4 weeks allows the stained area in the upper layers of the skin to be flaked and peeled off. This chemical peeling process can only be done during the winter months.
7- Can the spots reappear after the treatment?
In all stain treatment methods, after the stain treatment is done, there is a low probability that the stain will reappear in the same area. Therefore, a sunscreen cream with at least 30 SPF should always be used in summer and winter, and creams containing vitamin E or vitamin C should be continued to suppress the formation of stains.
In addition, when choosing a sunscreen cream, a sunscreen with a broad spectrum of both UVA and UVB should contain a chemical barrier in the middle, and a physical barrier sunscreen containing iron oxide, which provides protection from visible light, which we call physical protector, should be chosen.
8- What should be considered after spot treatment?
In order for the stain treatment to be permanent, it is very valuable to be protected from the harmful rays of the sun. Precautions to be taken by the person to use a sun protection SPF 30 or higher in summer and winter, to wear a wide-brimmed hat in summer, to wear sun-protective clothes, to sit in the shade and not to smoke are also valuable in terms of preventing stains from occurring again. It is also necessary to avoid processes such as scrubs and peeling masks that can irritate the skin quickly after spot treatment.
In addition, taking vitamin D support is absolutely necessary, especially for individuals who are always protected from sun rays and use sunscreen. Because the neediness of these people increases even more. Vitamin D is a very useful vitamin for hair, nails and skin. In particular, it is recommended to take 1000 IU of vitamin D per day under the supervision of a physician.